bnn.lv Latviski   bnn-news.com English   bnn-news.ru По-русски
Ceturtdiena 21.06.2018 | Name days: Monvīds, Egita, Emīls
LatviaLatvia

Daylight saving time. History and what it means for industries?

FaceBook
Twitter
Draugiem
print
(No Ratings Yet)

Baltic news, News from Latvia, BNN.LV, BNN-NEWS.COM, BNN-NEWS.RULatvia and many other countries around the world will transition from daylight saving time on 29 October. All clocks will be switched one hour back.

In Latvia, the transition will be carried out at 04:00 on Sunday, 29 October. The transition back to daylight saving time will be carried out on 25 March 2018.

History

The idea for daylight saving time appeared for the first time at the end of the 18th century. In 1784, Benjamin Franklin, who was then the US envoy in France, wrote an essay An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light, which he then sent to his friend who worked as an editor at Journal of Paris. The idea for the transition to daylight saving time appeared in Franklin’s mind when he was suddenly awoken by a loud noise at six o’clock in the morning.

When he woke up, Franklin was surprised to see bright light illuminating the room. A simple mathematical calculation helped Franklin calculate how much money Parisians spent by going to bed at midnight and waking in the afternoon and burning candles and oil lamps.

A century passed after Benjamin Franklin’s initial idea. In 1907 English builder William Willet mentioned DST again. Willet proposed switching the clock 80 minutes forward and by 20 minutes on every Sunday in April and doing the same in September, only the other way around. Willet’s proposal was ultimately rejected, but in 1916 the British parliament approved the law in accordance with which clocks were to be switched one hour forward to Greenwich Time in summer.

Daylight saving time was used for the first time by Germany, Britain, Ireland and France at the beginning of WWI. Its initial goal was saving energy.

During WWII, England introduced so-called Double Summer Time, which differed from Greenwich Time by two hours.

USA approved the law on transition to daylight summer time in 1918 to save resources for participation in WWI. This law remained in force for seven months between 1918 and 1919 because it was unpopular among Americans.

DST in Latvia

Information from the Latvian National Archive details that transition to DST in Latvia dates back to 1919 and 1920. Regular transition to DST among EU member states was introduced in the 60s and 70s of the 20th century, but the transition schedule differed from country to country. A similar situation was noted in Latvia, when the Soviet Union joined other countries around the world on 1 April 1981 and adopted regular transition to DST.

In Latvia, this transition was introduced for the first time in 1981. From 1997, DST is in force from the last Sunday of March until the last Sunday of October.

What do Latvian residents think about DST?

In March 2014, Latvian Economy Ministry performed an internet survey, asking residents to voice their opinions about the practice of transitioning to and from DST. A total of 6,244 respondents had participated in the survey. 4,917 of them voiced their dissatisfaction with this practice. Representatives of business organizations, NGOs, state and municipal institutions voiced their opinions on the effect of DST on different sectors.

Results of the survey showed contrasting opinions about the pros and cons among different group and sectors. Disruption of natural biorhythms was mentioned as one of the most serious problem that affects and individual’s ability to work. Some of the most often mentioned benefits included longer evenings and saving energy.

Agricultural activities are seasonal and the time one can use efficiently for work is very important. During the summer season, especially in heat waves, agriculture workers can start working early, when air temperature is relatively lower than it is during the day. DST does, however, have a somewhat negative effect on poultry and dairy industry. No real changes are noted for plant production.

In the energy sector, transition to daylight sunlight time helps save energy. Although individually private persons feel the difference in their bills, the overall difference in the country is negligible.

For construction industry, DST has a positive effect – considering the relatively short construction season in Latvia, transition to DST has a positive effect on productivity and allows organization of work in two shifts. At the same time, businessmen note that cancelling transition to DST would increase construction costs.

Healthcare specialists say more daylight in the afternoon improves psychological and physiological health – D vitamin synthesis, and longer evening hours increase the opportunity for residents to spend time doing outdoor physical activities. At the same time, it is noted that DST does cause sleep problems, which can, in turn, have negative impact on attention. The switch affects people with psychological disorders more than others.

Ref: 224.109.109.2404


Leave a reply

Ukraine's anti-corruption court law insufficient to IMF commitments

The International Monetary Fund has commended the Ukrainian parliament for passing a law to establish an anti-corruption court and pointed to need to amend it to ensure the court can work effectively.

Opinion: they’re trying to shut us up; KPV LV is inconvenient for current government

«We are inconvenient for the current government, the established order, because for the first time a party is prepared to use facts in its rhetoric in the pre-election period. They are trying to shut us up,» said KPV LV prime minister candidate Aldis Gobzems at a press-conference after Artuss Kaimiņš was taken away by Corruption Prevention and Combating Bureau.

Hydro and wind power plants produced 70.5% more electricity last year

In 2017 gross energy consumption in Latvia comprised 194.9 petajoules, which is 5.5 % more than in 2016. Over the past five years, the gross energy consumption has not changed significantly. However the share of renewable energy has increased by 2.55 percentage points.

Milder penalties for the accused in digital TV case; idea’s authors get no prison sentence

Riga Regional Court has released a shortened ruling in the so-called digital television criminal case. With it, the court acquitted previously convicted former director of Latvia’s National Theatre Ojārs Rubenis. Nevertheless, some of the accused have been sentenced to fines and actual prison time.

Estonian traitor Simm ruled to serve full 12.5 years in prison

A court in Tartu has decided that the Estonian Defence Ministry ex-official Herman Simm, found guilty of treason in 2009 and sentenced to 12.5 years in jail, has to serve his full sentence, not to be released earlier.

CPCB officers detain Kaimiņš after Saeima meeting

Officers of Latvia’s Corruption Prevention and Combating Bureau detained Saeima deputy Artuss Kaimiņš after the end of the parliament’s meeting.

Around 15% of Estonian 15-19-year-olds estimated to have mental illness

In Estonia, an estimated total of 20,000-40,000 adolescents, comprising 10-20% of all teenage Estonians, have been found to suffer from a mental illness and close to 3,000 children have been prescribed antidepressants.

Chief: Anti-Money Laundering Service should not submit to a single person

Anti-Money Laundering Service should not be controlled by a single person, says chief of the Control Service Ilze Znotiņa.

Saeima permits commencement of criminal process against Artuss Kaimiņš

This week Latvia’s Saeima voted in favour of the decision to detain and then perform a search in the home of Saeima member Artuss Kaimiņš from KPV LV political party.

U.S. withdraws from UN Human Rights Council voicing sharp criticism

The U.S. has withdrawn from the United Nations Human Rights Council describing the body as being politically biased and not working towards reducing human rights violations globally.

Latvian minister confirms interrogation by Lithuanian investigators

In the case regarding possible corruption in the National Blood Centre, Lithuanian services have interrogated Latvia’s Healthcare Minister Anda Čakša, as confirmed by the official.

Recreational use of marijuana legalised in Canada

Canadian Parliament has adopted a law legalising the recreational use of marijuana nationwide after medical use of the drug has been allowed since 2001. Canada is to become the second country in the world allow buying marijuana for recreational use.

Human Rights Committee: KGB documents should be made publicly accessible

Documents left from Latvian SSR KGB office are part of national document heritage and therefore should be handed over for lifetime storage and be made publicly accessible for research in Latvia’s National Archive.

Non-negotiated contracts; fictive deals: digital television introduction schemes for «mere mortals»

The criminal process revolving around digital television project’s realization in Latvia was launched 15 years ago – in 2003. And it began with a search in a company owned by Andris Šķēle. After that, the list of involved people started expanding with names like Andrejs Ēķis, Jurģis Liepnieks and others.

Doctors unjustifiably charged fees for services worth 255,000 last year

Last year, authorities found that medical institutions that provide state budget-financed healthcare services had charged fees for services worth EUR 254,994, according to data compiled by Health Inspectorate.

Budget Committee picks Swedbank economist for Bank of Latvia Council

On Tuesday, 19 June, Saeima’s Budget and Finance Committee unanimously decided to submit to the Saeima a decision project regarding approval of Mārtiņš Kazāks for the post of member of the council of the Bank of Latvia, as confirmed by Saeima’s press-service.

Farmers Saeima proposes declaring state of emergency in Latvia’s agriculture sector

Farmers Saeima association has sent a letter to Latvia’s State Chancellery, Agriculture Ministry, Finance Ministry and Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments, detailing a request addressed to the Cabinet of Ministers and Saeima to declare a state of emergency in the country’s agriculture sector because of the lasting drought.

IT specialist’s lawyers appeal client's arrest in recent restaurant case

Lawyers of Edgars Štrombergs, who is the accused party in the Vairāk saules restaurant cash register data manipulation case, have appealed the security measure applied to him, as confirmed by sworn attorney Mareks Halturins.

Russian and Belarusian arms control experts hosted by Lithuania

Russian and Belarusian arms control inspectors have been hosted by Lithuania as NATO forces trained across the Baltic states and Poland in exercise Saber Strike 2018.

Latvia’s ports suffer freight volume decline in first five months of 2018

Latvian ports handled 27.072 million tonnes of freight in the first five months of this year, which is 7.5% less when compared to the same period of last year, according to data compiled by Transport Ministry.

Bicycle rickshaws in Tallinn will need safety belts from July

Seeking to regulate the provision of bicycle rickshaw services in the Estonian capital, the Tallinn City Council has is to more particular bicycle rickshaw regulations that would align the services closer to car taxis.

158 election sites to open in Riga during next Saeima elections

A total of 158 election sites are planned to be opened in Riga for this autumn’s Saeima elections, as confirmed by documents prepared by Riga City Council.

30% of Latvian residents are dissatisfied with their family’s financial state

Residents’ overall mood has declined considerably across all survey positions. Residents have become the most negative about Latvia’s economic situation – 31% of them believe it has worsened. When asked to voice their outlooks for Latvia’s economy in a year from now, 17% of respondents said it will have improved, according to results of Baltic International Bank’s latest Latvian Barometer.

Apple fined 5 million euros for customer rights violations in Australia

A court in Australia has ruled that U.S. tech firm Apple has to pay a fine of 5.7 million euros refusing to repair iPhones and iPads that had been serviced by third parties as those actions breached consumer law.

Latvian coalition still torn about attracting highly-qualified guest workers

Because of differences in opinions among ministries, Latvia’s government is unlikely to support and view the proposal to ease the issue of EU blue card to highly-qualified guest workers without appropriate higher education, says Prime Minister Māris Kučinskis.