Latviski English По-русски
Friday 17.11.2017 | Name days: Uga, Hugo, Uģis

Secrets of YouTube

(No Ratings Yet)

It’s a technological marvel that YouTube can handle so many users watching so many videos simultaneously. But consider the other side for a moment: Every minute of the day, users upload an average of 72 hours of footage to the site. YouTube engineers tell us how they deal with so much data without getting bogged down

On September 29, at the statistical height of its popularity, the music video for Psy’s “Gangnam Style” received 12.8 million views on YouTube. That translates to an average of 8900 streaming requests for the video per minute, or 148 per second. And it’s not as though Psy’s was the only viral video on YouTube that day, writes Popular Mechanics.

YouTube as a site gets traffic at a level every day that would DDoS a large percentage of other websites,” says Rushabh Doshi, a software engineer at YouTube.

“We get 72 hours of video uploaded every minute. That’s like 36 full-length movies being uploaded to your site every minute,” he says adding that “everything at YouTube is made immensely more complicated because of the scale at which we operate.”

When Doshi joined YouTube in 2007, he says the site was getting 6 hours of video per minute. In the past five years, then, the site has seen a 10-fold increase in volume. But, Doshi says, the amount of data has exploded at an even higher rate. “The insane part is that there has been this huge shift going on from people capturing video at 240p resolution with low-bit-rate cameras to modern consumer devices that are 1080p with 25- to 30-megabit-per-second video streams,” he says. “That really explodes the amount of data that you need to process.”

Digital video has fundamentally changed the Web in the past half-decade, and no company has been more central to that evolution than YouTube. It democratized and popularized video sharing. It provided an opportunity for expression and protest for citizens of oppressive regimes, such as those in Iran, Libya, and Syria. It has also provided a vehicle through which the provocateurs of one culture can incite outrage in another; the video that prompted riots and mayhem throughout the Muslim world was spread through YouTube.

The site has become so synonymous with online video that it’s easy to overlook what a technological marvel it is. The site can ingest video directly from pretty much any source: phones, tablets, connected cameras, computer webcams, what have you. And engineers at the site have worked hard to make some of the complexities of digital video—codecs, bit rate, resolution—invisible to users, doing all of the transcoding and processing on the back end.

YouTube’s upload page, for instance, is embedded with software that can automatically upload and transcode multiple HD video files in real time. To decrease latency, the uploaded video is usually sent to whichever Google data center is geographically closest to the user. “We absolutely obsess over speed,” Doshi says. “One key insight is that you don’t have to wait to have the entire video to start processing it. The other key insight is that we can split up the video into smaller chunks and start processing each chunk separately. This plays really well to Google’s strengths—we have big data centers with lots of computers, so we have the CPU power to throw at it. Instead of trying to process one video on one computer, we break it up and distribute it.”

It is surprising to learn that YouTube doesn’t use any sort of face detection or video analytics tools to try to figure out what each video is about.

YouTube never deletes a video, no matter how few people watch it, unless the video’s owner requests it to be taken down.


Leave a reply

NAF: Russia’s attitude remains unfriendly towards Latvia

So far Russia’s demonstrated attitude has remained unfriendly towards Latvia, said Commander of Latvian Armed Forces Leonīds Kalniņš in an interview to LNT.

Lembergs’ turn to testify before parliamentary committee has come

Aivars Lembergs, who is accused of serious crimes and is suspended from performing duties as chairman of Ventspils City Council, has been invited to come to a meeting of the Saeima’s Investigative Committee and answer questions associated with so-called oligarchs case.

How Latvian communities around the world plan to celebrate Latvia’s birthday?

«Celebration of independence of the Republic of Latvia is an important tradition that allows members of Latvia’s diaspora to maintain ties with their homeland – this year’s event will be even more expansive and inclusive than ever before. This is because events associated with the country’s hundredth birthday will be organized all around the world,» says manager of World Federation of Free Latvians office in Latvia Jānis Andersons.

European Parliament triggers punitive procedure against Poland

Members of the European Parliament have passed a resolution requesting for the application of the so-called «nuclear option» for Poland, Article 7 of the EU Treaty, because of the threat to the rule of law in the biggest Eastern European country.

Wage rules violations most often associated with envelope wages

To promote public awareness and improve commercial environment, honest competition and honest compliance with taxes, Latvia’s State Revenue Service intends to expand its database with new information about taxpayers, BNN was told by SRS.

Management of Unity’s Saeima faction to change in December

«Political consultations with all of Unity’s partner parties that are represented in the Saeima’s faction have concluded. An agreement has been reached to perform management change before the end of Saeima’s autumn session – around 21 December,» says Unity’s chairman Arvils Ašeradens.

EP prepared to commence talks with EU governments on reforming asylum system

The European Parliament is prepared to commence talks about reforming Dublin Regulation to ensure every member state is able to resettle a portion of asylum seekers.

Estonia to pour into Finnish-Estonian cultural fund 700 000 euros

Estonian cabinet of ministers has decided to attribute 700,000 euros to the Finno-Estonian Cultural Fund, an organisation working since 2015 aimed at fostering cooperation between the two states in culture, creative economy and training both for individuals and organizations.

Russia in UN vetoes extension of Syrian chemical attack investigation

At the UN Security Council, Russia has used its veto powers to block a resolution with which it would be allowed to continue the international investigation into a chemical attack this spring in Syria, which prompted the U.S. to launch missile strikes on a Syrian airbase.

Latvia’s birthday expected to be windy

A precipitation zone will reach Latvia from the west on Friday, 17 November. The precipitation zone will, however, pass over Latvia quickly, making rainfall short and periods of clear sky more frequent and longer. Air temperature is expected to stay within +5° C… +8° C, as reported by State Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre.

State of emergency in force in flood-hit Greece

Rescue services in Greece are looking for no less than five people, who have gone missing following unexpected and disastrous floods on Wednesday, November 15, that killed 15 people; however, bad weather is still expected.

Laupīšanas 101 director: Latvia’s film industry has yet to reach its potential height

There is sufficient evidence to prove that Latvia’s film industry is capable, but at the same time many films are directed basically the same way. There is a lack of creativity, which means very slow development for the industry, said Kaspars Marhlevičs, director of short comedy Laupīšanas 101, in an interview to BNN.

Medical cannabis bill paves way in Lithuanian legislature

Otherwise conservative Lithuania has made a big stride forward legalising cannabis for medical use with 92 Lithuanian parliamentarians voting Thursday, November 15, to open the bill draft on medication containing cannabis. The law draft should go back to the parliamentary floor for deliberations on December 12.

Latvian sentenced to ten years in prison for fighting on the side of ISIS in Syria

On Thursday, 16 November, Latvian citizen Mārtiņš Grīnbergs was sentenced by Riga Regional Court to ten years and three months in prison for fighting on the side of Islamic State terrorist organization.

European Parliament: Africa’s development requires a new stimulus

To resolve economic, social and migration-related problems, which usually accompany lasting crises, better African-EU cooperation is needed, European Parliament members say.

Latvian Chamber for Commerce and Industry proposes preventing new MPC reforms

Increase of mandatory procurement components cannot be allowed. Exactly the opposite – this cost should be dropped entirely for end electricity prices in an attempt to improve international competitiveness of companies, BNN was told by council members of Latvian Chamber for Commerce and Industry.

Matīss: LDz cannot raise tariffs and perform rail electrification under cargo anti-record

Because Latvijas dzelzceļš has set an anti-record in cargo transports in the first ten months of this year, Saeima deputy and member of the National Economy Committee Anrijs Matīss says raising the fee for the use of infrastructure cannot be allowed. He adds that the intended railway electrification project should be considered very carefully.

Lithuania and Latvia placed in top 10 in climate policy index

In the annual Climate Change Performance Index, where climate policy action in 57 countries has been evaluated, on a scale from «very high» to «very low», 11 EU member states have been evaluated with as having been highly active, with Sweden showing the best results ahead of Lithuania, the UK, Finland and Latvia.

Bite Latvija buys Stream Networks and Latnet

Mobile commutations operator Bite Latvija has signed a purchase agreement for 100% of shares of Stream Networks and its subsidiary Latner Serviss, as BNN was informed by Bite manager in Latvia Kaspars Buls.

airBaltic carried three million passengers in first ten months of 2017

In the first ten months of 2017, airBaltic carried a total of 3,007,034 passengers to destinations in Europe, Scandinavia, Russia, CIS and the Middle East, BNN was told by the company.

Kaljulaid sees African opportunities to outplace EU in digitalisation

During a visit to Ethiopia, Estonian President Kersti Kaljulaid has discussed African-EU relations with the African Commissioner for Trade and Industry and recommended investing into digital development that would be beneficial for the continent itself.

Most employed people in Latvia are satisfied with their jobs

More and more often employers experience lack of qualified labour force, as well as increase of employees’ confidence about their competitiveness on the labour market and their openness for better job offers.

Estonian railways operator happy about increasing freight volume

Freight carried on the infrastructure of the Estonian state railway company Estonian Railways in October amounted to one million tons, which is a 10.4% hike compared to October 2016.

European Parliament: rule of law in Malta should be monitored more closely

Malta should strengthen the rule of law and the European Commission should follow the situation in the country more closely to ensure objective protection of rights, members of the European Parliament say.

Greece hit by sudden, disastrous floods

Towns in central Greece have suffered severe damages as unexpectedly heavy rain caused floods on Wednesday, November 15, taking the lives of no less than 15 people.